- October 29, 2010 // 10 Comments
- December 2, 2010 // 8 Comments
- December 2, 2010 // 6 Comments
- August 23, 2011 // 4 Comments
- March 2, 2011 // 4 Comments
- September 19, 2012 // 0 Comments
- September 16, 2012 // 0 Comments
- September 15, 2012 // 0 Comments
- September 12, 2012 // 0 Comments
- September 8, 2012 // 0 Comments
- By ragee1318, March 3, 2012
- By GRN Reddy, February 27, 2012
- By manoj mishra, January 11, 2012
- By Damien, January 5, 2012
- By Damien, January 4, 2012
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of India’s armed forces. The Indian Navy’s main mission is to deter and defeat any threats against India, its people or its maritime interests, in times of war and peace. It also takes part in joint exercises with the navies of other countries, participates in humanitarian missions and provides maritime assistance, including disaster relief, and visits foreign ports, for the purpose of international relations. The Indian Navy also works closely with the Indian Coast Guard in order to protect and enforce order in the Indian maritime zones.
India’s maritime history dates back thousands of years and many powerful navies have been based in the country, but the modern Indian Navy was created as the British Indian Navy in 1830, while India was still under British rule. Her Majesty’s Indian Navy or the Royal Indian Navy replaced the small navy or Marine of the East India Company, later renamed the Bombay Marine, which had been created in 1612 in order to protect merchant vessels and map the coast.
Upon the creation of the Indian republic, on January 26th 1950, the navy became simply the Indian Navy and its ships became INS or Indian Naval Ships. The first Indian Chief of the Naval Staff, Vice Admiral R.D. Katari, took office on April 22nd 1958.
The first engagement in which the Indian Navy took part was Operation Vijay in 1961. Since then, it has also played a role in the Indo-Pakistani Wars, patrolling waters after the Pakistani attack on Dwarka in 1965, and taking part in Operation Trident in 1971, when Karachi harbor was bombed on December 4th. This date has since been remembered as Navy Day in India. Following Operation Trident, the Indian Navy continued to play an important role in the 1971 war, notably by blockading the port of Karachi. In 1988, the Indian Navy and Air Force took part in the joint Operation Cactus, to prevent a coup in the Maldives. The Indian Navy was also instrumental during the Kargil conflict with Pakistan in 1999, and the 2001 to 2002 India Pakistan standoff. Indian naval vessels also escorted American ships as they passed through the Strait of Malacca in 2001.
The Indian Navy is currently the fifth largest navy in the world. Its 56,000 personnel on active duty includes 5000 people in the naval aviation branch, 1200 marine commandos and 1000 soldiers in the Sagar Prahari Bal, which patrols the Indian coastline. The Indian Navy operates approximately 170 vessels and 250 aircraft. The vessels of the Indian Navy include the INS Viraar aircraft carrier, together with its jet fighters, an amphibious assault ship, 8 destroyers, 13 frigates, and 15 submarines.
The navy is divided into four Commands, each of which is headed by a Vice Admiral as the Flag Officer Commanding in Chief. The Western Naval Command is based in Mumbai, the Eastern Naval Command in Visakhpatnam, the Southern Naval Command in Kochi and the Far Eastern Naval Command in Port Blair.
The Far Eastern Command was set up in conjunction with the Indian Air Force and Army, in order to safeguard the country’s interests in Southeast Asia. The Indian Navy patrols this area together with the navies of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. India also has an agreement with Australia to safeguard maritime security in the Asia Pacific.
The Indian Navy has three operational bases, at Mumbai, Vishakapatnam and since 2005, at Karwar. The base at Karwar is the only one to be exclusive to the navy, with the others also providing civilian port facilities. A new naval base is planned for Rambilli Mandal, near Vishakapatnam.
The MARCOS or Marine Commando Force is the navy’s Special Forces unit, created in 1987 for the purposes of counter-terrorism, amphibious warfare, direct action and special reconnaissance. They were involved in Operation Cactus and in the rescue of hostages from the Taj Mahal Palace and Tower hotel in Mumbai in 2008.
The Indian Navy consists of a mixture of foreign and domestically built ships. Indian manufacturers are known for producing corvettes, frigates and destroyers. The Navy has recently been through a period of expansion and modernization in order to hone its reputation and capabilities as a blue water navy. Modernization of the navy’s amphibious capabilities was prioritized after the experiences during relief efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The navy acquired its Landing Platform Docks such as the INS Jalashwa and a number of smaller amphibious vessels following the 2004 events. The Navy is also keen to modernize its submarines.
The current classes of guided missile destroyers are the Rajput and Delhi, but the new Kolkata class destroyers are expected to be commissioned from 2011. All Nilgiri guided missile frigates have now been decommissioned. Currently, the navy uses Talwar, Godavari and Brahmaputra class frigates. Three new Advanced Talwar frigates are expected by 2012. Corvettes are currently of the Abhay, Veer, Khukri and Kora classes, with the next generation corvettes of classes Project 28 and Project 28A being commissioned from 2012. The navy has a fleet of small amphibious vessels and tank landing ships, as well as a single Austin class transport dock, the INS Jalashwa.
The navy currently uses a single aircraft carrier, the INS Viraat, which is expected to be decommissioned once the first Indian build Vikrant class carrier comes into service. The Indian Navy is also planning to acquire another aircraft carrier from Russia. The Admiral Gorshkov will then become the INS Vikramaditya, by 2012.
The Indian Navy has Shishumar and Sindhughosh diesel submarines, and from 2012, it will have six new Scorpene submarines. The navy also has the INS Chakra, an Akula II class nuclear submarine, and it is expecting another. Both have been leased from Russia, with the option to buy at the end of the lease. The navy is expected to begin commissioning its own Indian built Arihant nuclear submarines from 2011. It is planned that the navy will have six nuclear submarines in total.
The navy’s aircraft are also currently undergoing modernization, with mig 29K aircraft replacing the older Sea Harriers which operate from the INS Viraat and INS Jalashwa. The navy operates a wide range of aircraft and helicopters, as well as using about 30 UAVs. It also has its own aerobatic display team, the Sagwar Pawan.
The President of India is the supreme commander of the Indian Navy. The current President is Pratibha Devisingh Patil.
The commander of the Indian Navy is the Chief of Naval Staff or CNS. The current Chief of Naval Staff is Admiral Nirmal Verma, who is the 20th CNS since the creation of the Indian Navy.
The Indian Navy takes part in various humanitarian efforts, including disaster relief. Following the Indian Ocean earthquake in 2004, the navy deployed more than 5000 personnel with 6 aircraft, 19 helicopters and 27 ships to provide relief both in India and overseas. The Indian Navy was also responsible for the evacuation of more than 2000 Indians and other expatriates from Lebanon during its conflict with Israel in 2006.
The Indian Navy has also taken part in anti-piracy operations, such as the rescue of the Japanese MV Alondra Rainbow in 1999, which was achieved in conjunction with the Indian Coast Guard. Indian naval vessels such as the INS Tabar frigate have ensured the safety of many vessels that would otherwise have been at risk of hijack by Somali pirates. The navy has escorted more than a thousand ships from fifty different nations safely through the Gulf of Aden. Its efforts have been recognized by the UN.